Government is pursuing an integrated approach to ameliorate the situation of unemployment among ST population across the country. Ministry of Tribal Affairs under its Special Area Programmes provides funds as an additive to the State Plan for carrying out skill development and employment-cum-income generation activities. During the financial years 2014-15 and 2015-16, the Ministry has impressed upon the State Governments for promotion of need based integrated livelihood initiatives and skill upgradation of tribals to get them respectable jobs such as:
• Diversified crops, horticulture, dairy development with State cooperative, backyard poultry, fisheries, apiculture, sericulture, etc. with proper market linkages.
• Marketable skills like (i) Office Management (ii) Solar Technician / Electrician (iii) Beautician (iv) Handicraft (v) Skills required for day to day construction works (such as Plumbing, Mason, electrician, fitter, welder, carpenter) (vi) Refrigeration and A/C repairing (vii) Mobile repairing (viii) Horticulture / Floriculture / Apiculture (ix) Nutrition & Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) (x) Ayurvedic & tribal medicines (xi) IT (xii) Data Entry (xiii) Fabrication (xiv) Home Nurse Training (xv) Automobile Driving and Mechanics (xvi) Electric & Motor Winding (xvii) Security Guard (xviii) Housekeeping & Management (xix) Retail Management (xx) Hospitality (xxi) Eco-tourism.
With a view to ensure that funds through various sources under the Tribal Sub-Plan (TSP) are utilized in the most efficient manner towards achieving the holistic development of tribal people, the Government of India has launched a Central Sector Scheme “Vanbandhu Kalyan Yojana (VKY)”. The VKY is broadly a process, which aims at achieving overall development of tribal people through convergence of available resources, with an outcome-based approach, monitored by an independent agency.
As per the poverty ratios estimated by the erstwhile Planning Commission, the population of Scheduled Tribes (ST) below poverty line has come down from 47.4% in 2009-10 to 45.3% in 2011-12 in rural areas. In urban areas also, it has declined from 30.4% in 2009-10 to 24.1% in 2011-12. Also, data pertaining to Census 2011 shows that the situation of non-workers among total ST population (i.e. 42.0%) is not dismal as compared to SC (i.e. 52.2%) and all social groups (53.3%). The percentage of ST non- workers has also declined from 50.9% in 2001 (Census 2001) to 42.0% in 2011 (Census 2011) at all India level.
The Ministry of Rural Development is implementing various rural development programmes namely, Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA), National Rural Livelihoods Mission (NRLM), Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana (PMGSY), Indira Awaas Yojana (IAY) and National Social Assistance Programme (NSAP) in rural areas of the country through State Government/UT Administrations to bring about overall improvement in the quality of life of the people in rural areas through employment generation, development of rural infrastructure and provision of other basic amenities. That Ministry has made specific provisions in the guidelines of the programmes to ensure adequate flow of resources to the Scheduled Tribes. Earmarking of Plan Outlay under TSP is being made at 24.71% under IAY and 20.59% for NRLM/ Aajeevika. Though no specific earmarking of fund is being made for STs under other major Rural Development Programmes like MGNREGA, PMGSY and NSAP but specific provisions have been made in the guidelines of these programmes for the benefit of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes.
In the Ministry of Tribal Affairs, a Reservation Roster is maintained as per rules and appointments are made according to the points reserved for various categories. STs are not suffering in so far as their promotion and incentives are concerned. As informed by Department of Public Enterprises (DPE), no centralized information is maintained in DPE in respect of STs discrimination at work. Central Public Sector Enterprises (CPSEs) are under the administrative control of different administrative Ministries/ Departments and any issue related to discrimination at work is forwarded to concerned administrative Ministry/ Department related to a CPSE for appropriate action, if any.
This information was given by Union Minister of State for Tribal Affairs Shri Mansukhbhai Dhanjibhai Vasava in a written reply in Lok Sabha